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Guidelines

General Guideline of the Flora of Pan-Himalaya

 

The Himalaya and adjacent regions (Pan-Himalaya) form a natural phytogeographical unit, from the Vakhan Corridor eastwards to the Hengduan Mountains via the Karakorum and the Himalaya. This region covers the northeastern corner of Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, Bhutan, northern Myanmar, and southwestern China (S Tibet, SE Qinghai, SE Gansu, W Sichuan and NW Yunnan). This region is divided into 17 subregions: Vakhan, N Pakistan, Jammu & Kashmir, U Ganga & Indus, U Yarlung Zangbo, W Nepal, C Nepal, E Nepal, Sikkim & Darjiling, Bhutan, M Yarlung Zangbo, L Yarlung Zangbo, Yarlung Zangbo-Brahmaputra, Tangut, N Hengduan, S Hengduan, and U Irrawaddy (see the maps).

The Flora of Pan-Himalaya (FLPH) will be published in English in two editions: printed and online. It treats all the native and naturalized vascular plants of this region.

The Flora will be published in 50 volumes with ca. 80 books, with the larger families divided into two to seven parts. The classification systems used in this Flora will reflect our current understanding of phylogenetic or phylogenomic relationships of the relevant groups. The third edition of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system (APG III) will be adopted for the angiosperms, and up-to-date phylogenetic or phylogenomic systems for the gymnosperms, ferns, and lycophytes will be followed for the treatments of those groups.

The natural and rational delimitation of species is the critical task of taxonomy, and is the most important criterion for judging the scientific value and standard of a Flora. Population concepts should be employed in determining the taxonomy; character analysis should be considered as the basis for a rational taxonomic treatment. Therefore, field observations at the population level, and statistic analysis based on broad population sampling and collections are greatly encouraged to investigate the variation of characters and evaluate their taxonomic significance for the delimitation of taxa. Herbarium specimens kept at the following herbaria must be examined and identified: PE, KUN, K, BM, E, CDBI, and SZ. The authors are also encouraged to visit the herbaria of A, B, CAL, CAS, G, KATH, LE, P, TI, W, and HNWP.

Delimitation of closely related species should be based on correlated discontinuous (including statistically discontinuous) variation of at least two characters. As to apomicts (such as Taraxacum spp., Sorbus spp.) and vegetatively reproducing plants, “macrospecies” should be adopted instead of “microspecies”.

The use of subspecies is encouraged in infraspecific classifications, but varieties only in special cases. Subspecies are geographical races and horizontally or vertically vicarious, whilst varieties are prominent ecotypes. Genotype variants within populations should not be recognized as different taxa. The description of a species should cover all its elements. Variants which do not merit formal taxonomic recognition may be noted below the description of the species.

Larger families and genera may be concisely subdivided. These systems should reflect the current understanding of phylogenetic or phylogenomic relationships, especially those generated from solid molecular and genomic data.

The concept of the genus should reflect the current understanding of phylogenies. Generic concepts strongly supported by both molecular/genomic and morphological evidence should be adopted, but those with weak support in molecular/genomic analysis and have no sound morphological evidence should not be accepted. The treatment of more poorly known groups should be conservative and any perceived problems indicated.

Identification keys are one of the most important products of classification, and the best reflection of its usefulness. Authors should construct a key based on examination of all relevant specimens.Where possible, keys should not be based on a single character, and must avoid vague words, such as “relatively large” vs. “relatively small”, “longer” vs. “shorter”. It is important to use easily visible characters in keys. Dichotomous indented keys such as those in the Flora of China are to be used in this Flora.

Description of species should be concise with emphasis on diagnostic characters, and should include habitat information and the geographical distribution, plus chromosome numbers, phenology, and other biological features, as well as reliable economic uses and conservation information where available.

Literature citation for accepted names and their basionyms must be provided. Important references, such as monographs and Floras, should be cited, but not more than three titles (at most five if absolutely necessary). All synonyms based on types from within the Flora area should be listed along with other synonyms that have been widely used in relevant publications.

Detailed type information should be indicated after the nomenclatural citation of taxa. Designation of types is highly encouraged in this Flora.

A distribution map is given for each species. This will be a dot map based on the specimens seen for the Flora. The vouchers are to be cited to record geographical distribution for each species, subspecies (or variety). At least one representative specimen is needed for each distribution unit (county in China, district in the other countries). For the more widely distributed taxa (across nine or more subdivisions), a larger distribution unit can be used, no citation of vouchers is needed, and the distribution outlines are also acceptable.

The nomenclatural novelties (new taxa, new combinations, and nomina nova) may be published in the Flora or elsewhere.

Sterile hybrids, and those hybrids not forming populations, are to be briefly discussed after the descriptions of their parents. Plants only konwn from cultivation may be indicated at the end of the treatment of the genus, but should not be included in the identification keys.

All genera, and at least one third of species, should be illustrated with good quality line drawings with scale bars to indicate magnifications. The illustrations can be drawn from herbarium materials, living materials or images available, selected by the authors, or taken from publications with permission. Wherever possible the material used should be indicated. Diagnostic characters of the species should be clearly illustrated. One plate may hold illustrations of one, two, or three species. For larger genera composite plates of diagnostic characters are encouraged.

The web edition of the Flora will follow the corresponding printed edition. Colour photographs, detailed citation of vouchers, and other sources of information are to be included only in the web edition.

The physical geography, history of studies of vascular plants from this region, biogeography, biodiversity conservation, general references, and key to families are to be included in the first (introductory) volume. A comprehensive index to taxa and other subjects are to be published in the last volume.

More detailed guidelines and a model treatment for preparation of Flora accounts will be provided by the Editorial Committee.

 

 

 

 

Specific Guidelines for Flora of Pan-Himalaya

Editorial Committee

[March 2015]

 

Introduction

The general guidelines for preparation of Flora of Pan-Himalaya (FLPH) outline the principles and standards to be followed in producing this Flora. The following guidelines for contributors are specifically in regard to the treatments of plant groups and the format of the Flora.  These guidelines are available on the FLPH website at www.flph.org.

 

1. Taxonomic Treatments

1.1 Treatments will be from the rank of family down to species or subspecies/variety. Infrafamilial and infrageneric taxa (subfamily, tribe, subtribe, subgenus, section, subsection, series, and subseries) should be used sparingly and only for large families or genera.

 

1.2 The most important taxonomic works on a family, especially the infrafamilial phylogeny based on molecular studies, should be briefly introduced.

 

1.3 The treatments at each level should be similar in organization (see below). Characteristics present at all ranks need not be repeated for the subordinate taxa. In general, the treatments at each level should be as follows:

a. Family: The family name should be given without citing the author, bibliography, or synonyms. This is followed by a concise description plus a statement outlining the worldwide distribution and the number of genera and species in the Pan-Himalaya. If subfamilies and tribes are used, their format should be the same as for the family.

b. Genus: The genus name should be followed by the author(s), bibliographic citation, synonym(s), description, number of species, distribution worldwide, and number of species in the Pan-Himalaya. If subgenera, sections, or series are used, their format will be the same as for the genus.

c. Species: The species name should be followed by the author(s), bibliographic citation, synonymy(s), description, chromosome number (if available), phenology, habitats and altitudinal range, and distribution. Necessary discussion will be put in a separate paragraph. Citation of vouchers should follow the species account.

d. Infraspecific Taxa: Subspecies, and variety (varieties) if used, should be treated in essentially the same as species. Quadrinomials should not be used. Forms (forma), cultivars, nothovars, etc., should not be formally treated, but may be briefly mentioned in the notes under the relevant taxon.

 

1.4 The family account of the Campanulaceae is given as an example.

 

2. Keys

2.1 Keys should be dichotomous, indented, and, in general artificial.  Special attention must be given to the utility of keys for identification. If the two leads of a key have taxa of unequal number, the lead with fewer taxa should be presented first.

 

2.2 The halves of each dichotomy should be unambiguous and contrasting. The order of characters within each couplet of the key should be the same and ordered from most to least diagnostic. Some taxa may need to be keyed out more than once. Whenever possible, keys should include characters that can be seen at both flowering and fruiting phases.

 

2.3 Keys with characteristics that contradict the descriptions are not allowed. To avoid this, authors should generate keys based on the descriptions. 

 

3. Type Citation and Typification

3.1 The authors are encouraged to provide type information including locality, collector(s) and collection number, and herbaria preserved for accepted names, and, if possible, for synonyms.

3.2 Lecto-, neo-, or epitypifications may be published in appropriate journals, but can also be published in FLPH.

 

4. Synonymy

4.1 All taxa at the generic, specific, and infraspecific levels recognized in major Floras of the Pan-Himalayan Region, should be accounted for in synonymy if they are not recognized in FLPH, and the basionyms of all taxa cited in synonym(s) must be included. However, names included in these Floras due to misidentification should not be treated as synonyms, although they may be mentioned in the discussion if this is deemed useful. Pro parte citations should be given only when the protologue cites type specimens now thought to belong to more than one currently recognized taxon and when the exact usage of the names has not been determined by lectotypification. If possible, contributors should lectotypify such names in a precursory paper or in the Flora.

 

4.2 At the generic level, synonyms widely used in the literature should be included with only the name of the author(s) and the year of publication. The type species of the generic name may be indicated if needed to clarify the nomenclature.

 

4.3 At the specific and infraspecific levels, synonyms that have not been used within the Pan-Himalaya, and those for which the status is uncertain, should not be included in synonymy.

 

4.4 At the specific and infraspecific levels, the complete bibliographic citation of synonyms should be given for basionyms of recognized taxa and for other synonyms. Except for the basionym of the accepted name, which must be cited first, synonyms should be listed in alphabetical order.

 

5. Literature Citation

Recent revisions or monographic treatments should be cited where relevant, for example, the account of Paeonia by Hong (Hong DY, 2010. Peonies of the World, Kew Publishing & Missouri Bot. Gard. Press). As stated in the general guidelines, citation of major Floras, revisions or monographs should be limited to three (at most five) entries.

 

6. Author Citation

6.1 Citation of author names should follow the International Plant Names Index (IPNI) authors list which is based on Brummitt RK & and Powell CE (eds.), Authors of Plant Names, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (1992) (http://www.ipni.org/standard_forms_author.html). 

 

6.2 The symbol ‘&’ should be used rather than the Latin et to separate the names of multiple authors (e.g. ‘Sieb. & Zucc.’ not ‘Sieb. et Zucc.’).

 

6.3 Nomina nuda should not be included as recognized taxa or in synonymy. The exceptions are names in Wallich’s Catalogue which should be included in the synonymy as if a basionym.

 

6.4 The term ‘in’ should be used only when a complete bibliographic citation is given (e.g. ‘Callicarpa gracilipes Rehd. in Sargent, Pl. Wilson. 3: 371. 1916.’). If only the author is given, ‘in’ is not used (e.g. ‘Clerodendrum trichotomum var. fargesii (Dode) Rehd.’ rather than ‘Clerodendrum trichotomum var. fargesii (Dode) Rehd. in Sargent’).

 

6.5 If the author of a validly published taxon ascribes it to another person without indicating that it had been directly contributed by that author, the author citation should include the ascribed author followed by the term ‘ex’ and then the publishing author (e.g. ‘Buddleja macrostachya Wall. ex Benth.’).  Where there is an acknowledgement then ‘in’ must be used when cited in full (e.g. ‘Dioscorea japonica Thunb. in Murray,’ but only when the bibliographic citation is given. See 6.4 above).

 

7. Abbreviation

Abbreviations of periodicals should follow Botanico-Periodicum Huntianum (BPH) (George H. M. Lawrence & A.F. Gunther Buchheim, 1968) and supplement (BPH/S) (Gavin D.R. Bridson, 1991). When the citation in BPH/S differs from BPH, BPH/S should be followed. Book abbreviations should follow the abbreviation of Taxonomic Literature, ed. 2 (TL2) and its supplements. Articles extracted from periodicals and given their own abbreviation in TL2 should be cited by the periodical.

 

8. Nomenclatural Citations

Nomenclatural citation should be in the following form:

Periodicals

Forbes. & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 26: 253. 1890.

Hu & Huang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 133. 1965.

Books

L., Sp. Pl. 1: 20. 1753.

C. Pei & S. L. Chen, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 65(1): 30. 1982.

Medicus, Malvenfam.: 46.1787.

 

9. Vernacular Names

Vernacular names will be cited only in the electronic Flora (i.e. the online Flora).

 

10. Measurements, Dimensions, and Quantities

10.1 All measurements should be metric, but the unit decimeter (dm) is not used. For most structures, millimeters are the smallest units to be used (e.g. ‘anthers 1.2--2 mm’), but for some structures, such as pollen or spores, it may be appropriate to use micrometers (e.g. ‘pollen 5--10 μm in diameter’).

 

10.2 For a single measurement ‘ca.’ or ‘to’ should precede the measurement (e.g. ‘trees ca. 10 m tall" and "ovary to 2 mm long’). Single numbers for quantitative characters are often exact and thus usually should not use "ca." (e.g. ‘filaments 10’).

 

10.3 For a range of measurements, a double dash is used to separate the extremes. Double dashes will be changed to en-dashes during formatting (e.g. ‘leaf 3--5 cm long’). However, a hyphen is used to separate a number from the words they describe (e.g. ‘style 35-lobed’ or style lobes 3 or 5’).

 

10.4 Exceptional measurements should be given in parentheses (e.g. ‘petiole 3--5(--7) cm long’). However, do not use parentheses to indicate exceptional conditions for descriptive terms (e.g. do not use ‘leaf blade lanceolate (to ovate)’ but use ‘leaf blade lanceolate to rarely ovate’).

 

10.5 If two discontinuous states are commonly found in a taxon, the states should be separated by the word ‘or’ rather than a double dash (e.g. ‘stamens 5 or 10’ and ‘petals 4 or 5’). Parentheses can also be used to express alternate states where such states are exceptional (e.g. ‘stamens 5(or 10)’ and ‘style lobes (3 or) 4’).

 

10.6 Use units that are appropriate for the scale of measurements. If a measurement would be an integer or an integer plus a decimal fraction at the next higher or lower unit, then the next higher or lower unit will be used. When determining the appropriate units of measurement, consider only the usual measurement and not the exceptional measurement described in paragraph 10.5 (i.e. do not consider measurements given in parentheses). For single measurement dimensions, transition from one unit of measurement to the next occurs when 10 units are reached (except for the transition from cm to m where the transition is at 100 cm because dm is not used) (e.g. ‘10 mm’ becomes ‘1 cm’; ‘12 mm’ becomes ‘1.2 cm’; ‘0.9 cm’ becomes ‘9 mm’; ‘100 cm’ becomes ‘1 m’; ‘120 cm’ becomes ‘1.2 m’; ‘0.9 m’ becomes ‘90 cm’). However, round off the decimal figure to the first decimal (e.g. ‘3.53 cm’ becomes ‘3.5 cm’ and ‘4.15 mm’ becomes ‘4.2 mm’).

 

10.7 For keys the same units must be used for both couplets which means that occasionally the rules in paragraph 11.8 are not followed for one of the couplets.

 

10.8 The following shows additional examples of the style that should be used and should not be used:

ovary (1--)3--5(--6) mm NOT ovary (1--) 3--5 (--6) mm

trees 10--15 m tall NOT trees 10--15 m

shrubs 30--70 cm tall NOT shrubs 3--7 dm tall

2-lobed NOT lobes 2

2-cleft NOT bifid

nutlets 2 or 3 NOT nutlets 2--3

(3 or)4(or 5)-carpellate NOT carpels (3 or) 4 (or 5)

3--6(or 7)-hooked NOT 3--6 (or 7)-hooked

5(--7)-parted NOT 5--(--7)parted

2(or 3)-lobed OR lobes 2(or 3)

(5 or)6-veined OR veins (5 or)6

4- or 5-valved OR valves 4 or 5

4--6-valved OR valves 4--6

(5--)7-ribbed OR ribs (5--)7

3(--5)-sided OR sides 3(--5)

 

11. Descriptions

11.1 Descriptions of families, genera, and species each should be concise and limited to about 150 to 200 words. The description and key must not contradict each other. The descriptions will include diagnostic characters and will not be monographic in extent.

 

11.2 Do not use diagnoses as a substitute for descriptions. Comparison with other taxa should not be used instead of, or as part of, a description but may be part of a discussion.

 

11.3 If a species includes more than one infraspecific taxon in the Pan-Himalaya, there should be a full description of the species as a whole and diagnostic descriptions for each of the infraspecific taxa (including the autonym), with the same set of characters used for each taxon.

 

11.4 If only one infraspecific taxon of a species occurs in the Pan-Himalaya, there should be no description under the species but a full description under the infraspecific taxon, with an indication of the overall distributional range of the species.

 

11.5 Descriptions are to be in botanical English, which is mostly composed of nouns, adjectives, and conjunctions. For FLPH, descriptive botanical English does not contain verbs and has few articles (e.g. ‘the’ is not used and ‘a’ is used only when necessary).

 

11.6 Descriptions should follow the conventional order: base to apex, proximal to distal, outside to inside (i.e. habit, duration, sex, roots, stems, leaves, inflorescences, flowers, fruit, seeds). Each major part of a description will be in a separate sentence with semicolons used to separate subparts. At the beginning of each sentence and after each semicolon there must be a noun, and all the description until the end of the sentence or until a semicolon must refer back to that noun. Commas are used to separate the various components within the sentence. Note that a series with the use of ‘and’ or ‘or’ is treated as a single component.

 

11.7 If two alternate states of a structure exist, they should be separated by the word ‘or’ and when several alternate states exist, each state should be separated by a comma with the final state preceded by a comma followed by ‘or’ (e.g. ‘petals white or pink’ and ‘petals white, pink, or blue’).

 

11.8 If a range of shapes is found in a structure the word ‘to’ should be used (e.g. ‘leaf blade oblong to ovate’). If a structure is meant to be described as intermediate in shape rather than a range between two extremes, a hyphen ‘-’ is used (e.g. ‘leaf blade lanceolate-ovate’).

 

11.9 When characters are given in series, a comma is used to separate each component of the series and before the final ‘and’ (e.g. ‘branchlets, petioles, and peduncles tomentose’).

 

11.10 The general order to describe a structure is as follows: color, shape, dimensions, texture, surface characteristics, base, margin, apex.

 

11.11 The following is the general order for describing specific structures:

Below ground parts: roots, underground stems

Stems: primary stem (s), trunks, bark, wood, branches, branchlets

Leaves: general arrangement, stipules, petiole, leaf blade, lobes, compound leaf axes, leaflets (segments in ferns), modified leaflets

Inflorescences: general, position, type, branches (i.e. description of axes), peduncle, bracts

Flowers: general features, pedicel, receptacle and hypanthium, calyx, corolla, corona, androecium (flowering), glands or disk, gynoecium (flowering)

Fruit: general, aggregation of or division within fruit, fruit or mericarp structure, accessory structures, multiple fruit structure

Seeds: external structures, germination, abortion, endosperm, megagametophytes, embryo

 

11.12 Descriptions and keys should be based on actual specimens but not taken from the literature; discrepancies between specimens and literature reports should be mentioned in the discussion. Descriptions and keys must be based on the Pan-Himalayan material, not on specimens from beyond the range of the Flora.

 

11.13 In descriptions and keys, nouns must be used as singular or plural depending on the condition found in the plant being described (e.g. ‘style 2--4 mm’ is used when the flower has a single style, but ‘styles 2--4 mm’ is used when the flower has more than one style).

 

11.14 The following shows how the general rule for singular and/or plural would be applied for a particular shrubby species:

The species is composed of many shrubs.

The shrubs have many branches, many leaves, several inflorescences, many flowers, and many fruit (note that the plural of fruit is also fruit, if they are all of one type).

Inflorescences have one peduncle and several bracts.

Leaves have one petiole, one leaf blade, one abaxial surface, one adaxial surface, one base, one margin, one apex, one midrib, and several veins (not nerves).

Flowers have one calyx, one corolla, 1--several sepals, 1--several petals, 1--several stamens, 1--several ovaries/ 1--several carpels or mericarps, and 1--several styles.

The fruit has 1--several seeds.

 

12. Terminology

The botanical terminology will be kept as concise and accurate as possible. Lawrence's Taxonomy of Vascular Plants (1951), Stearn's Botanical Latin (1992, ed. 4, revised), and the Plant Identification Terminology by Harris & Harris (1994) are useful references. Simple English terms are preferred to their botanical Latin equivalents (e.g. ‘leathery’ rather than ‘coriaceous’). The illustrations in Stearn’s Botanical Latin (1992, ed. 4, revised) provide consistent ratios and terminology for describing shapes of plant parts.

 

13. Distribution

Distribution of each taxon will be given at the county, district, or township level unless the taxon is more restricted in distribution, thereby requiring a more detailed account. Subdivisions are listed from west to east individually rather than as a range, such as ‘from E Nepal eastwards to N and S Hengduan’, while counties, districts, or townships are listed alphabetically. Detailed information of counties or districts or townships of each subdivision of the Pan-Himalaya  is presented in Appendix 1.

Thus for Cyananthus macrocalyx:

Chromosomes: 2n=10. Phenology: flowering in July and August; fruiting in August and September. Habitats: alpine meadows, grassy slopes, rarely in forests; 2500–5000 m. Distribution: E Nepal, Sikkim & Darjiling, Bhutan, L Yarlung Zangbo, Yarlung Zangbo-Brahmaputra, Tangut, N Henguan, and S Hengduan (Map C3: 3); also in Assam of India (), and NE Yunnan of China.

 

14. Elevation

Elevations are usually given as a range, but if a single elevation is given it should be preceded by ‘ca.’.

 

15. Chromosome Number

When they have been reported (i.e. published), chromosome numbers should be included at the end of the entry for taxa at the specific and infraspecific levels. All chromosome numbers will be cited as the somatic number (2n). Unpublished chromosome numbers will not be included.

 

16. Discussion

Necessary discussion can be added at the end of each familial, generic, specific, or infraspecific entry, but should be concise. Discussion will normally focus on problems of nomenclature, taxonomy, distribution, or biology that highlight further research needs. Special attention should be paid to taxa considered to be threatened or endangered. Misapplied names should also be dealt with here. Unlike descriptions, discussions must be in proper English sentences.

 

17. Uses

Uses should be included when known, but must be kept brief. Examples of descriptive terms for uses could include fiber, food, ornamental, medicinal, oil, starch, or timber.

 

18. Voucher Specimen Citation

All specimens examined should be recorded in the online Flora. At least one voucher specimen must be recorded for each distribution units (county in China, district in the other countries) in the printed Flora. Collector(s) name(s) and collection number are in italic followed by the acronym of the herbarium. Collection date (year) and altitude information should be included also. Only one representative voucher specimen is needed for each distribution unit. For the more widely distributed taxa (across nine or more subdivisions), no citation of vouchers is needed.

Thus for Cyananthus macrocalyx Franch.:

E NEPAL: Mechi, Tamur Valley, 3960 m, 1956, J. D. A. Stainton 945 (E). SIKKIM & DARJILING: Sikkim, Kangpupchuthang, 4880 m, 1911, Bibu & Rhomoo 5201 (E); West Distr., 4420 m, 1992, D. G. Long et al. 666 (E). BHUTAN: Kiki-la, Pummang, 3960 m, 1915, R. E. Cooper 4118 (E); Upper Mangde Chu, 4270 m, 1949, L. S. Hicks 16808 (E). L YARLUNG ZANGBO: Mainling, Paiqu, 4300 m, 1983, B. S. Li et al. 5973 (PE); Nyingchi, Sêji-la, 4360 m, 1975, Qinghai-Xizang Suppl. Exped. 751096 (PE). YARLUNG ZANGBO-BRAHMAPUTRA: Ridong, 4000–4200 m, 1982, Qinghai-Xizang Exped. 10749 (PE); Zayü, Guyu Pass, 4160 m, 2012, D. Y. Hong et al. H12042 (PE). TANGUT: Baxoi, Rawu, 4100 m, 1973, s. coll. 950 (PE); Riwoqê, Butuoka, 4450 m, 1991, J. S. Yang 91-727 (PE); Sêrtar, Sêrqu, 1974, G. C. Zhang 6703 (PE)......

 

19. Illustrations

19.1 No less than one-third of the species of each genus should be illustrated. For monospecific or oligospecific genus there must be at least one illustration. The illustrations will show habit and relevant details of vegetative and floral parts as an aid to identification. The illustrations can be drawn from herbarium specimens selected by the author(s), from photograghs, or from publications with permission.

 

19.2 Illustrations can be a single species plate, but preferably should take the form of a composite plate depicting two or three taxa. Where possible, authors should consider selecting one species for full illustration, and representatives of other taxa, if not most of the remaining taxa, to show only those parts that differ significantly from the full illustration, or that offer the greatest diagnostic value. Illustrations of diagnostic features, such as leaf or corolla shapes, may also be included as text figures.

 

19.3 Authors are encouraged to prepare illustrations from resources at their home institution before seeking help from the Editorial Office in Beijing.

 

20. Related Literature

The followings are major floristic works that must be consulted in preparing treatments for Flora of Pan-Himalaya.

Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae

Flora of China

Flora Qinghaiica

Flora Sichuanica

Flora Tsinlingensis

Flora Yunnanica

Flora Xizangica

Vascular Plants of the Hengduan Mountains

Flora of India

Flora Iranica

Flora of Nepal

Fascicles of Flora of India

Flora of Bhutan, Grierson A. J. C. & Long D. G. 1983.

An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal, Hara H., et al. 1978-1982.

The Flora of British India, Hooker J. D. 1875-1897.

Flora of Pakistan, Nasir E. and Ali S. J. 1971.

 

 

21. Miscellaneous Abbreviations and Symbols

The following are the abbreviations and symbols to be used in the manuscripts.

?? missing data to be added before publication

μm micrometer(s)

C Central

ca. circa, about, approximately

cm centimeter(s)

comb. combination

cv. cultivar

d.b.h. diameter at breast height

E East

EC East Central

ed. edition

e.g. for example

et al. and others

fam. family

fig. figure

gen. genus

i.e. that is

km kilometer(s)

m meter(s)

mm millimeter(s)

N North

NC North Central

NE Northeast

nom. cons. nomen conservandum

nom. nov. nomen novum

nom. nud. nomen nudum

nov. novus

NW Northwest

p. page

pl. plate

pp. pages

p.p. pro parte

S South

SC South Central

SE Southeast

sect. section

ser. series

s.l. sensu lato

sp., spp. species

s.s. sensu stricto

subfam. subfamily

subgen. subgenus

subsp., subspp. subspecies

SW Southwest

t. table

var. variety

vol. volume

W West

WC West Central

 

Acknowledgements

The Editorial Committee of FLPH gratefully acknowledge the editorial boards of Flora of China and Flora of Nepal for allowing the use of their guidelines.

 

 

 

Geographical subdivisions of the Pan-Himalaya.

The Pan-Himalaya is divided into 17 subdivisions as the follows, with districts, counties and other kinds of localities indicated.

 

Subdivision 1. Vakhan (Wakhan)

Demarcation

Down to districts

Wakhan Corridor

Districts: Boroghil Tal (36053'N, 72024'E), Ptukh-Tal (3702'N, 73025'E), Vakhan (Wakhan, ca. 3700'N, 7300'E)

 

 

Subdivision 2. N Pakistan

Demarcation

Down to districts/localities

Northern Pakistan

Azad Kashmir: Bagh (33059'N, 73047'E), Bhimbar (32059', 74004'), Hatian (34010', 73044'), Kotli (33031', 73055'), Mirpur (33011', 73046'), Muzaffarabad (34022', 73028'), Neelum, Punch River (33012', 73040'); Baltistan: Astor (35024', 74050'), Deosai Plains (34055', 75025'), Hushe (35028', 76022'), Khapalu (35010', 76020'), Kharmang (34058', 76014'), Kishenganga Valley (34022', 73030'), Nanga Parbat (35015', 74036'), Molikhoo (ca, 36020', 74040'), Rama Valley (35020', 75050'), Skardu (35018', 75037'); Chitral: Ashret (h) (35026', 71045'), Bishigram (Beshgram: 36013', 71049'), Bomboret Gorge (35041'N, 71038'E), Chitral (35051', 71047'), Dir (35020',71050'), Darkot (36039', 73026'), Drasan (36019', 72015'), Drosh (35033',71048'), Mastuj (36017', 72031'), Owir (3607'N, 71055'E), Shoghot (3601'N, 71045'E), Sora lasht (36017'N, 7202'E), Tirich Gol (36025', 72015'), Tirich Mir (36015', 71050'), Ushu (35032', 72039'), Yarkhum (36039', 72052'), Ziarat (35023', 71047'); Gilgit: Diamir (ca. 35036', 74012'), Ghizar (36011', 72048'), Gilgit (35055', 74018'), Ganto La (35041'N, 75021'E), Hunza (Hunza-Nagar) (36016', 74041'), Imit (36030', 73054'), Karimabad Baltit (36020', 74040'), Minapir Glacier (Minapin Glacier) (36013', 74035'), Naltar (36010', 74012'), Yasin (36021', 73019'); Hazara: Abbottabad (3409', 73013'), Babusar Pass (35012', 74003'), Havelian (3403', 73010'), Kagan (34047', 73032'), Kagan Valley (34025', 73017'), Mansehra (34020', 73012'), Murree Hills (33054', 73024'), Siam Valley; Swat: Kalam (35035', 72025'), Kohistan (35035', 72030'), Shang-la (Shang La: 36030', 73059')

 

 

Subdivision 3. Jammu & Kashmir

Demarcation

Down to districts/localities

Jammu and Kashmir

Anantnag (33044'N, 75009'E), Baltal (34015', 75026'), Bhadarwah (32059', 75043'), Chumar (32039', 78035'), Dal Lake (3407', 74052'), Dras (34027', 75046'), Gulmarg (34010', 74026'), Gurais (34038', 74050'), Hanle (32048', 7900'), Jammu (32044', 74052'), Kangan (3406', 74055'), Kargil (34034', 76006'), Kartse (34016', 76001'), Kathua (32022', 75031'), Kishtwar (33019', 75046'), Kolahoi Valley (34010', 75020'), Kulgam (33039', 75001'), Ladak (34030', 77030'), Leh (34010', 77035'), Liddar Valley (34010', 75015'), Neoshera (Nowshera), Padum (Padam: 33028', 76053'), Raramula (Baramula: 34012', 74021'), Riasi (33005', 74050'), Rupshu (32058, 78017'), Sonamarg (34018', 75018'), Sopur (34018', 74028'), Srinagar (34005', 74049'), Tangmarg (3402', 74026'), Tankse (3402', 78011'), Tragbal (34030', 74039'), Udhampur (32056', 75008'), Uri (3405', 7402'), Zangla (33040', 76059') , Zanskar (Zaskar) Valley (33035', 76050'), Zaskar (Zanskar) (33035', 76050')

 

 

Subdivision 4. U Ganga & Indus

Demarcation

Down to districts/localities

Drainage area of upper Ganga and  Indus

Almora (29037'N, 79040'E), Badrinath (30044', 79017'), Bageshwar (29051', 79046'), Bakloh (32028',75055'), Baspa Valley (31030',78011'), Bilaspur (31020', 76045'), Binsar (29043', 79045'), Burang (30020'N, 81012'E), Chamba (32034', 76008'), Chamoli (30024', 79021'), Chur Pass (= Mt. Chur 30053', 77029'), Dalhousie (32032', 75059'), Dankhar (32005', 78013'), Darcha (32041',77012'), Dehra dun (30019', 7802'), Deoban (30045',77051'), Dharmsala (32013', 76019'), Gar* (32031', 80004'), Gê’gyai (32025', 81008'), Gondla (32030',7701'), Haridwar (29058', 78010'), Jalauri Pass (31032',77022'), Jawala Mukhi (31053', 76019'), Kalpa (31032', 78015'), Kanaur (31059',77026'), Kangra (32006', 76016'), Kasumpti, Kyelang (32035',77003'), Kilar (3306',76025'), Kulu (31058', 7706'), Kuthi (30019',80046'), Lahul & Spiti (Spiti: 32050', 78013'), Mussorie (30043', 77026'), Nagar (32007', 77010'), Nagrota (32003', 76005'), Nainital (29023',79027'), Nurpur (32018', 75054'), Pauri (30009', 78047'), Pauri Garhwal (30009', 78047'), Rajpur (30024',78006'), Ralam Valley (30019',80017'), Rampur (31027', 77038'), Ranikhet (29039', 79025'), Roorkee (29052', 77053'), Sangla (31025', 78015'), Shimla (Simla) (31006', 77010'), Solan (30055', 7707'), Srinagar (30013', 78047'), Sundarnagar (31032', 76053'), Tehri (30023', 78029'), Tehri Garhwal (Tehri-Garhwal) (30023', 78029'), Uttarkashi (30044', 78027'), Zanda (31028', 79048')

*We use the past location for this county.

 

 

Subdivision 5. U Yarlung Zangbo

Demarcation

Down to counties

Upper Yarlung Zangbo Region

Dinggyê (28012', 8800'), Gyirong (28053', 85016'), Lhazê (29005', 87038'), Ngamring (29018', 87014'), Nyalam (28010', 85057'), Saga (29020', 85019'), Tingri (28039', 87008'), Zhongba (29042', 84012')

 

 

Subdivision 6. W Nepal

Demarcation

Down to districts

Western Nepal

Bheri: Banke (28020'N, 81037'E), Bardiya (28018', 81022'), Dailekh (28050', 81044'), Jajarkot (28042', 82014'), Surkhet (28036', 81036'); Karnali: Dolpa (29015', 83015'), Humla (30005', 81050'), Jumla (29015', 82015'), Kalikot (29006', 81041'), Mugu (29045', 82032'); Mahakali: Baitadi (29032', 80026'), Dadeldhura (29018', 80035'), Darchula (29051', 80033'), Kanchanpur (28050', 80015'); Rapti: Dang (28007', 82018'), Pyuthan (2806', 82052'), Rolpa (28030', 82020'), Rukum (28030', 82020'), Salyan (28022', 82010'); Seti: Achham (29003', 81018'), Bajhang (29032', 81005'), Bajura (29023', 81019'), Doti (29016', 80059'), Kailali (28034', 80047')

 

 

Subdivision 7. C Nepal

Demarcation

Down to districts

Central Nepal

Bagmati: Bhaktapur (27040'N, 85025'E), Dhading (27052', 84055'), Kabhre (Kabre) (27040', 86010'), Kathmandu (27043', 85019'), Lalitpur (27040', 85020'), Nuwakot (28008', 83053'), Palanchok (27035', 85040'), Rasuwa (2705', 86026'), Sindhupalchok (2800', 85045'); Dhawalagiri: Baglung (28016', 83036'), Myagdi (28040', 83020'), Mustang (29011', 83058'), Parbat (28020', 83040'); Gandaki: Gorkha (2800', 84038'), Kaski (28016', 83053'), Lamjung (28012', 84022'), Manang (28040', 84001'), Syangja (28005', 83052'), Tanahu (27045', 84015'); Janakpur: Dhanusa (26045', 86005'), Dolakha (27041', 86004'), Mahottari (26050', 85045'), Ramechhap (27020', 86005'), Sarlahi (26055', 85035'), Sindhuli (27016', 85058'); Lumbini: Arghakhanchi (27050',83010'), Gulmi (28010', 83020'), Kapilvastu (27032', 83003'), Nawalparasi (27045', 84007'), Palpa (27052', 83029'), Rupandehi (27029', 83017'); Narayani: Bara (27010', 85010'), Chitwan (27035', 84020'), Makawanpur (27030', 85010'), Parsa (27015', 84045'), Rautahat (2700', 85040')

 

 

Subdivision 8. E Nepal

Demarcation

Down to districts

Eastern Nepal

Kosi: Dhankuta (26059'N, 87020'E), Morang (26035', 87015'), Sankhuwasabha (27040', 87015'), Sunsari (26040', 87010'), Terhathum (27007', 87032'); Mechi: Ilam (26054', 87056'), Jhapa (26029', 87051'), Panchthar (27010', 87045'), Taplejung (27021', 87040'); Sagarmatha: Bhojpur (27010', 87003'), Khotang (27001', 86051'), Okhadhunga (27020', 86030'), Saptari (26040', 86040'), Siraha (26039', 86012'), Solukhumbu (27040', 86050'), Udayapur (26056', 86031')

 

Subdivision 9. Sikkim & Darjiling

Demarcation

Down to Darjiling and Sikkim directly

Sikkim and Darjiling

Darjiling*: Lebong (2705'N, 88017'E); Sikkim: Gangtok (27020', 88037'), Jongri (Dzongri) (27029', 88009'), Lachen (27044', 88033'), Lachung (27037', 88039'), Zemu Glacier (27045', 88016')

*Only the specimen sheets clearly labeled from Darjiling area are included in the Flora.

 

 

Subdivision 10. Bhutan

Demarcation

Down to districts/valleys/rivers

Bhutan

(West) Chukha (27004'N, 89035'E), Ha (27022', 89017'), Paro (27019', 89032'), Phuntsholing (26051', 89023'), Samchi (26052', 89006'), Thimphu (27029', 89054'); (Central) Bumthang (27054', 90049'), Byakar (27033', 90043'), Gasa (27055', 89041'), Gaylegphug (27005', 90035'), Lingshi (27055', 89026'), Punakha (27037', 89052'), Ritang (27033', 90010'), Sankosh (26045', 90005'), Sarbhang (26053', 90016'), Shamgong (27014', 90039'), Tongsa (26052', 90057'), Tsampa (27056', 90038') , Upper Mangde Chu (27054', 90026'), Upper Mo Chu (27056', 90026'), Upper Pho Chu (27041',89053'); (East) Deothang (26053', 91030'), Monggar (Mongar 27015', 91036'), Sengor (27021', 91001'), Shingbe (27056', 91037'), Tashigang (27019', 91034'), Tashi Yangtsi (27035',91028'), Upper Kulong Chu (27027', 91054'), Upper Kuru Chu (ca. 27045', 91004').

 

 

Subdivision 11. M Yarlung Zangbo

Demarcation

Down to counties

Middle Yarlung Zangbo Region

Bainang (29007'N, 89011'E), Comai (28024', 91025'), Dagzê (29036', 91018'), Damxung (30024', 91006'), Doilungdêqên (29038', 90054'), Gamba (28017', 88031'), Gonggar (29014', 90059'), Gyangzê (28056', 89036'), Kangmar (28033', 89041'), Lhasa (29039', 91008'), Lhozhag (28025', 90052'), Lhünzhub (30006', 91019'), Maizhokunggar (29047', 91042'), Nagarzê (28055', 90021'), Namling (29036', 89002'), Nêdong (29011', 91048'), Nyêmo (29025', 90005'), Qonggyai (29001', 91036'), Qüxü (29018', 90045'), Rinbung (29011', 89047'), Sa'gya (28054', 880), Sangri (29015', 92001'), Xaitongmoin (29024', 88016'), Xigazê (29016', 88051'), Yadong (27024', 88054'), Zhanang (29012', 91019')

 

 Subdivision 12. L Yarlung Zangbo

Demarcation

Down to counties/districts

Lower Yarlung Zangbo Region

Bomi* (Bomi Town=Zhamo, 29053', 95045'; Guxiang, 29055', 95030'; Qomdo=Qumdo, 3004', 95030'; Sumzom, 29042', 9605'; Tangmai, 30005', 9504'; Yi’ong, 30012', 94054'), Gongbo’gyamd (29054', 93018'), Gyaca (29004', 92032'), Lhari (30038', 93029'), Mainling 29010'N, 94010'E, Nangxian (29002', 93008'), Nyingchi (29030', 94018'), Rawu**(29029', 96044')

* Bomi County is so large and is so rich in flora that it merits being divided into six districts, Guxiang, Qomdo (Qumdo), Sumzom, Tangmai, Yi’ong and Zhamo (Bomi Town)

** Rawu belongs to Baxoi County (Tangut), but it is in Yarlung Zangbo basin.

 

Subdivision 13. Yarlung Zangbo-Brahmaputra

Demarcation

Down to towns/villages//rivers/mts

Including Yarlung Zangbo-Brahmaputra area and drainage area of the following rivers: Dingba River,  Kamen River (Bhareli), Xibaxa River(Subansiri), and

Zayü River (Lohit or Luhit),

Abor Hills (28025', 94040'), Aprunyi (28035'N, 95051'E), Baibung (29011', 95010'), Baishan Pass (27055', 91052'), Bangxing (29038', 95026'), Bumdirla (27013', 92017'), Chayul Chu (28020', 9300'), Cona (Town) (27058', 91056'), Dafla (Daphla) Hills (27020', 93029'), Delei Valley (28020', 96037'), Dexing (Dêxing: 29019', 95016'), Digdong (29012', 95004'), Dirang 27020' 92015', Goyü Goqên 29008' 97014', Gutang 29028' 95041', Jiro (Ziro) 27038' 93050', Lang-la (28058'N, 93042'E), Langong (28045'N, 9400'E), Lhünzê (Town) (28022', 92022', Luguthang (27032'N, 92011'E), Luhit (Lohit) Valley (2800', 96015'), Mama-Tea Farm (27051', 91047'), Mêdog (Town) 29013', 95018', Minzong 27053', 96056', Miri Hills 27055' 93055', Mishmi Hills (28015', 9600'), Moindawang (27037', 91052'), Nyam Jang Chu (27041', 91033'), Riga (28031', 95003'), Rushon, Sanga Choling (28°35'N, 92°55'E), Shangzayü (Shang Zayü: 28048', 96041'), Tali (28002', 93046'), Tsari (Migyutin) (28°37'N,93°23'), Walung (28007', 9700'), Wulang (29025', 95021'), Xiazayü (28024', 9700'), Yümai (28034', 93009'), Zayü (Town Gyigang) (28038', 97029')

 

Subdivision 14. Tangut

Demarcation

Down to counties

Tangut Region

Aba (32055'N, 101042'E), Baima (32057', 100042'), Banbar (30056', 94042'), Baqên (31057', 940), Baxoi* (30001', 96055'), Biru (31031', 93041'), Chindu 33018', 97006', Dêgê (31049', 98035'), Dêngqên (31025', 95030'), Garzê (31039', 99058'), Jomda (31031' 98012'), Lhorong (30030', 95046'), Nagqu (31029', 92007'), Nangqên (32013', 96026'), Qamdo (31006, 97006'), Qumarlêb (34003', 95050'), Riwoqê (31012', 96030'), Sêrtar (32012', 100021'), Sêrxü (32059', 98004'), Sogxian 31045' 93044', Yushu (33002', 96059'), Zadoi (32058', 95018'), Zamtang (32019', 100054'), Zhidoi (33051', 95037'), Zhag’yab (30036', 97032')

* One of its township Rawu, is moved to L Yarlung Zangbo.

 

Subdivision 15. N Hengduan

Demarcation

Down to counties

Northern Hengduan Mountain Region

Baiyü 31014'N, 98050'E, Barkam 31055', 102013', Batang 3000' 99009', Danba 30052', 101052', Dawu 30059' 101008', Gonjo (30052', 98018'), Heishui 32004', 102058', Hongyuan 32048' 102032', Jinchuan 31030' 102002', Jiuzhaigou (Nanping) (33014' 104012'), Litang 30001' 100017', Lixian 31026' 103006', Luhuo 31022' 100040', Maoxian (31041' 103052'), Markam 29040' 98032', Pingwu (32026', 104031'), Songpan 32039' 103035', Wenchuan 31029' 103036', Wenxian 32058' 104041', Wudu 33026' 104056', Xiaojin 30059' 102021', Xinlong 30057' 100017', Yajiang 30002' 10100', Zhugqu 33049' 104021', Zogang 29041' 97052'

 

Subdivision 16. S Hengduan

Demarcation

Down to counties

Sorthern Hengduan Mountain Region

Baoxing (30022'N, 102050'E), Bijiang (old name of Zhiziluo in Pihe xiang,) (26033', 98057'), Binchuan (25049', 100032'), Butuo (27042', 102049'), Cawarong (Tsawarong) (28029', 98027'), Dali (25034', 100013'), Daocheng (29001', 100018'), Dêqên (28030', 98055'), Dechang (27025', 102010'), Dêrong (28043', 99016'), Eryuan (26006', 99056'), Fugong (26054', 98054'), Ganluo (28058'102046'), Gongshan (27043', 98039'), Hanyuan (29022', 102041'), Heqing (26033', 100011'), Huidong (26040', 102033'), Huili 26041'102013', Huaping 26039' 101014', Jianchuan 26032'99052', Jiulong (29001'101031'), Kangding 30004' 101057', Lanping 26030' 99016', Longyang (25005', 99006'), Luding 29057' 102014', Lushui 25059' 98049', Meigu (28021' 103008'), Mianning 28036' 102010', Miyi 26054' 102008', Muli*Baidiao, 28005' 101055'; Bo'ao=Bowa=Muli Town, 27055' 101015'; Donglang, 28051' 100040'; Liziping, 27058' 101014'; Shawan Chabulang=Waerzhai 28031' 100053'; Warzhong=Wachang, 28009' 100050', Ninglang 27018' 100049', Ningnan (27005', 102046'), Panzhihua (including Renhe, Eastern Area and Western Area) 26034' 101043', Puge 27025' 102031', Shangri-la (Zhongdian) 27048', 99042', Shimian 29015' 102023', Tianquan (30006'102046'), Weixi 27009' 99017', Xiangcheng 28055', 99047', Xichang (27054', 102016'), Xide (28021', 102025'), Yangbi (25041', 99058'),  Yanbian (26041', 101050'), Yanyuan (27027', 101030'), Yongping (25028', 99031'), Yongsheng (26042', 100044'), Yuexi (28040', 102030'), Yulong (Lijiang) (26052', 100014'), Yunlong (25054', 99022'), Zhaojue (28001', 102049')

* Muli County is so large and is so rich in flora that it merits being divided into nine districts, Baidiao, Bo'ao (=Bowa =Muli Town), Donglang, Kangwu, Liziping, Shawang, Waerzhai (=Warizhen), Warzhong (=Wachang), Zhabulong.

 

Subdivision 17. U Irrawaddy

Demarcation

Down to towns/mts/ valleys

Upper Irrawaddy River, mainly in N Myanmar

Adung Valley (28020'N, 97040'E), Chaungmaw Kyaun (26019', 98021'), Chimili Valley (26023', 98048'), Drungjiang* (27043', 98021'), Hpimaw (26005', 98035'), Htawgaw (25057', 98023'), Imaw Bum (26010', 98028'), Kang Fang (in Ngawchang Valley) (26009', 98036'), Mahtum (26006', 97058'), Nam Tamai Valley (28015', 97030'), Nyitadi (27020', 98039'), Putao (27021', 97024'), Ridong (28°32', 98°0'), Senighku Valley (28010', 97020'), Tengchong (25001', 98030')

* Drungjiang belongs to Gongshan County (S Hengduan), but it is in Irrawaddy basin.

 

2017-06-21   PV:115
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