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苏铁 sutie(避火蕉、凤尾草、凤尾松
相关名称 Common Names
拉丁名
Cycas revoluta Thunb.
中文名
苏铁
拼音
sutie
别名
避火蕉、凤尾草、凤尾松、凤尾蕉、辟火蕉、铁树、美叶苏铁
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描述 Description
树干高达2~5m。羽状叶长O.5~1.2m,小叶约100对,线形,长15~20cm,宽3~5mm,硬革质,边缘显著反卷,背面有疏毛。雄球花序圆柱形,密被黄褐色绒毛;雌球花序扁球形,大孢子叶羽状裂,密被黄褐色毛;种子红色。原产亚洲热带,华南有分布。喜温暖湿润气候及酸性土壤,不耐寒;生长甚慢,寿命长。是本属中栽培最普遍的一种。长江流域及北方各城市常盆栽观赏,温室越冬;暖地则可于庭园栽培。
园林树木1200种
常绿树,不分枝,高1-4(-20)米,密被宿存的叶基和叶痕。羽状叶长0.5-2米,基部两侧有刺;羽片达100对以上,条形,质坚硬,长9-18厘米,宽4-6毫米,先端锐尖,边缘向下卷曲,深绿色,有光泽,下面有毛或无毛。雄球花圆柱形,长30-70厘米,直径10-15厘米,小孢子叶长方状楔形,长3-7厘米,上端宽1.7-2.5厘米,有急尖头,有黄褐色绒毛;大孢子叶扁平,长14-22厘米,密生黄褐色长绒毛,上部顶片宽卵形,羽状分裂,其下方两侧着生数枚近球形的胚珠。种子卵圆形,微扁,顶凹,长2-4厘米,熟时朱红色。 分布于福建、广东,现普遍栽培;日本,印度尼西亚也有。茎内淀粉及种子可食,种子含油约20%;叶、种子入药,有收敛止咳、止血之效。
中国高等植物图鉴

2. 苏铁(通用名) 铁树(北京俗名),辟火蕉(俗称),凤尾蕉(植物名实图考),凤尾松(中国种子植物科属辞典),凤尾草(广西临桂) 图版1: 1-6

Cycas revoluta Thunb. Pl. Jap. 229. 1784; J. E. Smith in Trans Linn. Soc. Lond. 6: 312. t. 29. 30. 1802; Hook. in Curti's Bot. Mag. 57: t. 2963. 2964. 1830; Miq. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. ser. 3. 3: t. 9. 1845, et Prodr. Cycad. 6. 17. 1861; DC. Prodr. 16 (2): 526. 1868; Dyer in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 26: 559. 1902; Pilger in Engler u. Prantl, Pflanzenfam. ed. 2. 13: 74. f. 61. 1926; Yamanoto in Suppl. Icon. Pl. Formos. 4: t. 3. 1928; Groff in Lingnan Sci. Journ. 9 (3): 271. 1930; 郑万钧, 中研丛刊2: 103. 1931; Leandri in Lec. Fl Gen. Indo-Chine 5: 1089. 1931; Schuster in Engler, Pflanzenr, 99, 4 (1): 81. f. 4 H. 10 L-U. 11 A-B. 12. K-N. 1932; 陈嵘, 中国树木分类学1.图1. 1937; 周汉藩, 河北习见树木图说1.图1. 1943; Metcalf, Fl. Fukien 1: 18. 1942; 郝景盛, 中国裸子植物志9. 1945,再版8: 1951; Melchior u. Werd. in Engler's Syllab. Pflanzenfam. l: 320. f. 128 A. 1954;侯宽昭等, 广州植物志65. 图9. 1956; 裴鉴、单人骅等, 江苏南部种子植物手册2.图1. 1959; 郑万钧等, 中国树木学1:92.图43.1961; S: Y. Hu in Taiwania 10: 15. 1964; Ohwi, Fl. Jap. 109. 1965;中国科学院植物研究所, 中央国高等植物图鉴1: 285. 图569.4972. ——Palmas japonica Herm. Prodr. 361. 1691.——Arbor calappoides sinensis Rumph. Herb. Amb. 5: 92. t. 24. 1750.——Cycas inermis. Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 2: 776. 1790, excl. syn.——Cycas revoluta var. inermis Miq. Anal. Bot. Ind. 2: 28. t. 3-4. 1851, et Prodr. Cycad. 16. 1861.——Cycas inermis Oudem. in Arch. Neerl. 2; 385. t. 20. 1867, ibidem 3: l. 1868.

树干高约2米,稀达8米或更高,圆柱形如有明显螺旋状排列的菱形叶柄残痕。羽状叶从茎的顶部生出,下层的向下弯,上层的斜上伸展,整个羽状叶的轮廓呈倒卵状狭披针形,长75-200厘米,叶轴横切面四方状圆形,柄略成四角形,两侧有齿状刺,水平或略斜上伸展,刺长2-3毫米;羽状裂片达100对以上,条形,厚革质,坚硬,长9-18厘米,宽4-6毫米,向上斜展微成“V"字形,边缘显著地向下反卷,上部微渐窄,先端有刺状尖头,基部窄,两侧不对称,下侧下延生长,上面深绿色有光泽,中央微凹,凹槽内有稍隆起的中脉,下面浅绿色,中脉显著隆起,两侧有疏柔毛或无毛. 雄球花圆柱形,长30-70厘米,径8-15厘米,有短梗,小孢子飞叶窄楔形,长3.5-6厘米,顶端宽平,其两角近圆形,宽1.7-2.5厘米,有急尖头,尖头长约5毫米,直立,下部渐窄,上面近于龙骨状,下面中肋及顶端密生黄褐色或灰黄色长绒毛,’花药通常 3个聚生;大孢子叶长14-22厘米,密生淡黄色或淡灰黄色绒毛,上部的顶片卵形至长卵形,边缘羽状分裂,裂片12-18对,条状钻形,长2.5-6厘米,先端有刺状尖头,胚珠2-6枚,生于大孢子叶柄的两侧,有绒毛。种子红褐色或桔红色,倒卵圆形或卵圆形,稍扁,长2-4厘米,径1.5-3厘米,密生灰黄色短绒毛,后渐脱落,中种皮木质,两侧有两条棱脊,上端无棱脊或棱脊不显著,顶端有尖头。花期6-7月,种子10月成熟。

产于福建、台湾、广东,各地常有栽培。在福建、广东、广西、江西、云南、贵州及四川东部等地多栽植于庭园,江苏、浙江及华北各省区多栽于盆中, 冬季置于温室越冬。日本南部、菲律宾和印度尼西亚也有分布。苏铁喜暖热湿润的环境,不耐寒冷,生长甚慢,寿命约200年。在我国南方热带及亚热带南部l0龄以上的树木几乎每年开花结实,而长江流域及北方各地栽培的苏铁常终生不开花,或偶尔开花结实。模式标本采自日本。

苏铁为优美的观赏树种,栽培极为普遍,茎内含淀粉,可供食用;种子含油和丰富的淀粉,微有毒,供食用和药用,有治痢疾、止咳和止血之效。

知识共享:署名-非商业性使用-禁止演绎 1978《中国植物志》第7卷 007页 PDF

Trunk to 3(-8) m × 45(-95) cm, base and sometimes distal part with numerous adventitious lateral branches or bulbils, apex tomentose; bark gray-black, scaly. Leaves 40-100 or more, 1-pinnate, 0.7-1.4(-1.8) m × 20-25(-28) cm; petiole subtetragonal in cross section, 10-20 cm, with 6-18 spines along each side; leaf blade oblong- or elliptic-lanceolate, strongly "V"-shaped in cross section, recurved, brown tomentose when young; leaflets in 60-150 pairs, horizontally inserted at ca. 45° above rachis, not glaucous when mature, straight to subfalcate, 10-20 cm × 4-7 mm, leathery, sparsely pubescent abaxially, base decurrent, margin strongly recurved, apex acuminate, pungent. Cataphylls triangular, 4-5 × 1.5-2.3 cm, densely brown tomentose, apex acuminate. Pollen cones pale yellow, ovoid-cylindric, 30-60 × 8-15 cm; microsporophylls narrowly cuneate, 3.5-6 × 1.7-2.5 cm, apex rounded-truncate, cuspidate. Megasporophylls yellow to pale brown, 14-22 cm, densely tomentose; stalk 7-12 cm; sterile blade ovate to narrowly so, 6-11 × 4-7 cm, deeply laciniate, with 21-35 lobes 1-3 cm; ovules 2 or 3 on each side of stalk, densely pale brown tomentose. Seeds 2(-5), orange to red, obovoid or ellipsoid, somewhat compressed, (3-)4-5 × 2.5-3.5 cm, sparsely hairy; sclerotesta not grooved on sides. Pollination May-Jul, seed maturity Sep-Oct.

Thickets on hillsides on islands, sparse forests on mainland; 100-500 m. Fujian (Lianjiang Xian, Ningde Xian, and some islands) [S Japan (Kyushu, Ryukyu Islands)]

A vulnerable, if not endangered, species in China. Its formerly wide distribution in E Fujian has now been severely reduced as a result of over collection by commercial dealers and habitat destruction. It was sporadically distributed in Fujian in the 1960s, but it is now uncertain that any wild populations still exist. Cycas revoluta is the most commonly cultivated cycad because of its ornamental appearance, hardiness, and adaptability.

知识共享:署名-非商业性使用-禁止演绎 FOC Vol.4PDF
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