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FLORA OF PAN-HIMALAYAS SPECIFIC GUIDELINES FOR CONTRIBUTORS
发布日期:2011-05-17    来源:FLPH    作者:FLPH   点击次数:4194

Editorial Committee, Flora of Pan-Himalayas

[May 2011]

 

 

Introduction

The general guidelines for preparation of the Flora of Pan-Himalayas (FLPH) outline the principles and standards to be followed in writing this Flora. The following guidelines for contributors are more specific regarding the treatments of plant groups and format of the Flora.  The guidelines for Flora of China and Flora of Nepal have been consulted for preparing this version.  All of these guidelines will be available at the FLPH website (www.flph.org) and pending further revisions.

 

1. Taxonomic Treatments

1.1 Treatments will be from the rank of family down to species, subspecies variety in special cases). Infrafamilial and infrageneric taxa (subfamily, tribe, subtribe, subgenus, section, subsection, series, and subseries) should be used sparingly and only for large families or genera.

 

1.2 The most important taxonomic works on a family, especially the infrafamilial phylogeny based on molecular studies should be briefly introduced with a limit of no more than 500 words. No more than 10 references of such important works should be cited.

 

1.3 The treatments at each level should be similar in organization (see below). Characters present at all ranks need not be repeated for the subordinate taxa. In general the treatments at each level should be as follows:

a. Families: The family name should be given without an author, bibliographic citation, or synonyms. A concise description should be given plus a statement concerning the worldwide distribution, number of genera, and number of genera in the Pan-Himalayans. If subfamilies and tribes are used, their treatments should be the same as for the family.

b. Genera: The genus name should be followed by the author(s), bibliographic citation, synonymy, description, number of species, distribution worldwide, and number of species in the Pan-Himalayans. If subgenera, sections, or series are used, their treatments will be the same as for the genus.

c. Species: The species name should be followed by the author(s), bibliographic citation, synonymy, description, flowering and fruiting time, chromosome number (if available), habitats, altitudinal range, and distribution. Any necessary discussion will be put in a separate paragraph.

d. Infraspecific Taxa: Subspecies (or varieties) should be treated in essentially the same way as species. Quadrinomials should not be used. Forms (forma), cultivars, nothovars, etc., should not be formally treated, but may be briefly mentioned in the notes under the relevant taxon.

 

1.4 The family account for the Paeoniaceae is given as a supplementary example.

 

2. Keys

2.1 Keys should be dichotomous, indented, and in general artificial.  Special attention must be given to the utility of keys for identifying specimens. If the two leads of a key have taxa of unequal number, the lead with fewer taxa will be presented first.

 

2.2 The halves of each dichotomy should be unambiguous and contrasting. The order of characters in each lead of the key should be the same and from diagnostically most important to least important. Some taxa may be keyed out more than once. Whenever possible, keys should include characters that can be seen from both flowering and fruiting plants.

 

2.3 Keys with taxonomic characters that contradict the descriptions are not allowed. To avoid this it is recommended that authors write keys after the descriptions have been written, and base the keys on the descriptions. 

 

3. New Combinations, Names, and Taxa

3.1 Nomenclatural novelties (new taxa, new combinations, nomina nova) are to be published in appropriate journals prior to their uses in the FLPH.

3.2 It is recommended that authors of new taxa send an isotype or a paratype to PE and other important herbaria.

 

4. Type Citation and Typification

4.1 Type information including locality, collector(s) and collection number, and herbaria preserved should be cited for all accepted species and infraspecific taxa, and also for the synonymies if they are known.

 

4.2 Lecto-, neo-, or epitypifications are better to be published in appropriate journals, but can also be published in the FLPH.

 

5. Synonymy

5.1 All taxa at the generic, specific, and infraspecific levels recognized in major Floras of the Pan-Himalayans, should be included in synonymy if they are not recognized in the FLPH, and the basionyms of all taxa cited in synonymy must be included. However, names included in these Floras due to misidentification should not be treated as synonyms, although they should be mentioned in the discussion if deemed useful. Pro parte citations should be given only when the protologue cites types now thought to belong to more than one currently recognized taxon and when the exact usage of the names has not been clarified by lectotypification. If possible, contributors should lectotypify such names in a precursory paper or in the Flora.

 

5.2 At the generic level only synonyms widely used in the literature should be included. Generic synonyms will include only the author(s) and the year of publication. The type of the generic name recognized may be indicated if needed to clarify the nomenclature.

 

5.3 At the specific and infraspecific levels, synonyms occurring outside of the Pan-Himalayans, and those for which the status is uncertain, should not be included in synonymy.

 

5.4 At the specific and infraspecific levels, the complete bibliographic citation of synonyms should be given for basionyms of recognized taxa and other synonyms. Basionyms of recognized taxa should be listed as the first synonym rather than in alphabetical order.

 

6. Citations of Literature for Species and Genus

6.1 For species: Only original literature, following the above guidelines, should be included (i.e. only the citation for the place of publication of taxonomic names). Auxiliary literature should not be cited (i.e., publications that cite or use a particular taxonomic name, but are not the place of publication for that name). Records of this auxiliary literature will be included in electronic Flora outputs (i.e., the online Flora).

 

6.2 For genus: Recent revisions or monographic treatments should be cited where relevant, for example, the account of Paeonia by Hong (Hong D. Y. 2010. Peonies of the World, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden Press). As stated in the general guidelines, citation of major Floras, revisions or monographs should be limited to no more than three entries for the accepted genus.

 

7. Author Citations

7.1 Author names should follow R. K. Brummitt and C. E. Powell (eds.), Authors of Plant Names, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (1992). 

 

7.2 The symbol "&" should be used rather than the Latin et to separate the names of multiple authors (e.g., "Siebold & Zucc." not "Siebold et Zucc.").

 

7.3 Nomina nuda (besides those in Wallich’s catalogue) should not be included as recognized taxa or in synonymy.

 

7.4 The term "in" should be used only when a complete bibliographic citation is given (e.g., "Callicarpa gracilipes Rehd. in Sarg., Pl. Wilson. 3: 371. 1916."). If only the author is given, "in" is not used (e.g., "Clerodendrum trichotomum var. fargesii (Dode) Rehd." rather than "Clerodendrum trichotomum var. fargesii (Dode) Rehd. in Sarg.").

 

7.6 If the author of a validly published taxon ascribes it to another person, the author citation should include the ascribed author followed by the term "ex" and then the publishing author (e.g., "Buddleja macrostachya Wall. ex Benth.").

 

8. Citation Abbreviations

Periodical abbreviations should follow Botanico-Periodicum Huntianum (BPH) (George H. M. Lawrence, A.F. Gunther Buchheim, 1968) and supplement (BPH/S) (Gavin D.R. Bridson, 1991). When the BPH/S differs from BPH, BPH/S should be followed. Book abbreviations should follow the abbreviations of Taxonomic Literature, ed. 2 (TL2) and supplements.

 

9. Nomenclatural Citations

Literature citations should be in the following form:

Periodicals

Forb. & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 26: 253. 1890.

Hu & Huang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 10: 133. 1965.

Books

L., Sp. Pl. 1: 20. 1753.

C. Pei & S. L. Chen, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 65(1): 30. 1982.

 

10. Vernacular Names of Plants

Vernacular names will be cited only in the electronic Flora output (i.e. the online Flora).

 

11. Measurements, Dimensions, and Quantities

11.1 All measurements should be metric, but the unit decimeter (dm) is not used. For most structures, millimeters are the smallest units to be used (e.g., "anthers 1.2–2 mm"), but for some structures, such as pollen or spores, it may be appropriate to use micrometers (e.g., "pollen 5–10 μm in diam.").

 

11.2 For a single measurement "ca." or "to" should precede the measurement (e.g., "trees ca. 10 m tall" and "ovary to 2 mm"). Single numbers for quantitative characters are often exact and thus usually should not use "ca." (e.g., "filaments 10").

 

11.3 When a single measurement is used, the measurement indicates length, unless some other dimension is explicitly stated, and the word "long" will not be added (e.g. "filaments ca. 3 mm" rather than "filaments ca. 3 mm long" but use "stem ca. 5 mm in diam."). In the case of tree diameter use "d.b.h." for diameter at breast height, which is measured at 1.4 m above the base, rather than "diam."

 

11.4 If a range of measurements is found for a taxon, a double dash will separate the measurements, which will be changed to an en-dash during formatting (e.g. "leaf blade 3–5 cm"). However, a single dash is used to separate a number from the words they describe (e.g. "style 3–5-lobed").

 

11.5 Exceptional measurements should be given in parentheses (e.g. "petiole 3–5(–7) cm"). However, do not use parentheses to indicate exceptional conditions for descriptive terms (e.g. do not use "leaf blade lanceolate (to ovate)" but use "leaf blade lanceolate to rarely ovate").

 

11.6 If two discontinuous states are commonly found in a taxon, the states should be separated by the word "or" rather than a double dash (e.g. "stamens 5 or 10" and "petals 4 or 5"). Parentheses can also be used to express alternate states where such states are exceptional (e.g. "stamens 5(or 10)" and "style (3 or) 4-lobed").

 

11.7 If both length and width are used, the measurements are given as length times width. To indicate a multiplication sign, use a capital X with a space before and after the letter X (e.g., "leaf blade 4–6 X 1–3 cm" and "sepals ca. 4 X 1 mm"). During formatting, the capital X will be changed to a "" sign.

 

11.8 Use units that are appropriate for the scale of measurements. If a measurement would be an integer or an integer plus a decimal fraction at the next higher or lower unit, then the next higher or lower unit will be used. For deciding what units of measurement to use, only consider the usual measurement and not the exceptional measurement described in paragraph 11.5 (i.e. do not consider the measurements given in parentheses). For single measurement dimensions, transition from one unit of measurement to the next occurs when 10 units are reached (except for the transition from cm to m where the transition is at 100 cm because dm is not used) (e.g. "10 mm" becomes "1 cm"; "12 mm" becomes "1.2 cm"; "0.9 cm" becomes "9 mm"; "100 cm" becomes "1 m"; "120 cm" becomes "1.2 m"; "0.9 m" becomes "90 cm"). However, round off the decimal figure to the first decimal (e.g. "3.53 cm" becomes "3.5 cm" and "4.15 mm" becomes "4.2 mm").

 

11.9 When a range is used, apply a mean of the range to the rules stated in paragraph 11.8 (e.g. "8–12 mm" becomes "0.8–1.2 cm"; "7–12 mm" does not change; "0.8–1 cm" becomes "8–10 mm"; "0.5–1.5 cm" does not change).

 

11.10 When X is used, apply the mean of the stated measurements to the rules stated in paragraph 11.8 (e.g. "8–12 9–12 mm" becomes "0.8–1.2 0.9–1.2 cm"; "8–12 7–12 mm" does not change; "ca. 9 5–17 mm" becomes "ca. 0.9 0.5–1.7 cm"). However, when X is used and the length and width are more than two orders of magnitude different, use different measurements for the length and width (e.g. use "20–30 cm 0.5–1 mm" rather than "20–30 0.05–0.1 cm").

 

11.11 For keys the same units must be used for both leads which means that occasionally the rules in paragraph 11.8 are not followed for one of the couplets.

 

11.12 The following shows additional examples of the style that should be used and should not be used:

ovary (1–)3–5(–6) mm NOT ovary (1–) 3–5 (–6) mm

leaf blade ca. 5 1–2 cm NOT leaf blade 5 1–2 cm

leaf blade ca. 5 2 cm NOT leaf blade ca. 5 ca. 2 cm

leaf blade 2–5 ca. 2 cm NOT leaf blade ca. 2–5 2 cm

petiole 3.5–7 mm NOT petiole 3.5–7 mm long

trees 10–15 m tall NOT trees 10–15 m

shrubs 30–70 cm tall NOT shrubs 3–7 dm tall

2-lobed NOT bilobed

2-cleft NOT bifid

nutlets 2 or 3 NOT nutlets 2–3

(3 or)4(or 5)-carpellate NOT (3 or) 4 (or 5)carpellate

3–6(or 7)-hooked NOT 3–6 (or 7)-hooked

5(–7)-parted NOT 5–(–7)parted

2(or 3)-lobed OR lobes 2(or 3)

(5 or)6-veined OR veins (5 or)6

4- or 5-valved OR valves 4 or 5

4–6-valved OR valves 4–6

(5–)7-ribbed OR ribs (5–)7

3(–5)-sided OR sides 3(–5)

 

12. Descriptions

12.1 Descriptions of families, genera, and species each should be limited to about 130 to 150 words. Descriptions at any level must be parallel for the taxa at that level (i.e. an attribute mentioned for one species should be mentioned for the other species within the same genus). Only critical and necessary characters used in the key should be repeated in the description, and the description and key must not contradict each other. The descriptions will include diagnostic characters and will not be monographic in extent.

 

12.2 Do not use diagnoses as a substitute for descriptions. Comparison with other taxa should not be used instead of, or as part of, a description but may be part of a discussion.

 

12.3 If a species includes more than one infraspecific taxon in the Pan-Himalayas, there should be a full description of the species as whole, and the descriptions of the infraspecific taxa (including the autonym) will be diagnostic for each taxon.

 

12.4 If only one infraspecific taxon of a species occurs in the Pan-Himalayas, there should be no description under the species but a full description under the infraspecific taxon, but an indication of the overall distributional range of the species should be given.

 

12.5 Descriptions are to be in botanical English, which is mostly composed of nouns, adjectives, and conjunctions. For the FLPH, descriptive botanical English does not contain verbs and has few articles (e.g. "the" is not used and "a" is used only when necessary).

 

12.6 Descriptions should follow the conventional order (i.e. habit, duration, sex, roots, stems, leaves, inflorescences, flowers, fruit, seeds). Each major part of a description will be in a separate sentence with semicolons used to separate subparts. At the beginning of each sentence and after each semicolon there must be a noun, and all the description until the end of the sentence or until a semicolon must refer back to that noun. Commas are used to separate the various components within the sentence. Note that a series with the use of "and" or "or" is treated as a single component.

 

12.7 If two alternate states of a structure exist, they should be separated by the word "or," and when several alternate states exist, each state should be separated by a comma with the final state preceded by a comma followed by "or" (e.g. "petals white or pink" and "petals white, pink, or blue").

 

12.8 If a range of shapes is found in a structure the word "to" should be used (e.g. "leaf blade oblong to ovate"). If a structure is meant to be described as intermediate in shape rather than a range between two extremes, a dash "-" is used (e.g. "leaf blade lanceolate-ovate").

 

12.9 When characters are given in series, a comma will separate each component of the series and before the final "and" (e.g. "branchlets, petioles, and peduncles tomentose").

 

12.10 The general order to describe a structure is as follows: color, shape, dimensions, texture, surface characteristics, base, margin, apex.

 

12.11 The following is the general order for describing specific structures:

Below ground parts: roots, underground stems

Stems: primary stems, trunks, bark, wood, branches, branchlets

Leaves: general arrangement, stipules, petiole, leaf blade, lobes, compound leaf axes, leaflets (segments in ferns), modified leaflets

Inflorescences: general, position, type, branches (i.e. description of axes), peduncle, bracts

Flowers: general features, pedicel, receptacle and hypanthium, calyx, corolla, corona, androecium (flowering), glands or disk, gynoecium (flowering)

Fruit: general, aggregation of or division within fruit, fruit or mericarp structure, accessory structures, multiple fruit structure

Seeds: external structures, germination, abortion, endosperm, megagametophytes, embryo

 

12.12 Descriptions and keys should be based on actual specimens and not taken from the literature; discrepancies between specimens and literature reports should be mentioned in the discussion. Descriptions and keys must be based on the Pan-Himalayan material, not on specimens from beyond the range of the Flora.

 

12.13 In descriptions and keys nouns must be used as singular or plural depending on the condition found in the plant being described (e.g. "style 2–4 mm" is used when the flower has a single style, but "styles 2–4 mm" is used when the flower has more than one style).

 

12.14 The following shows how the general rule for singular and/or plural would be applied for a particular shrubby species:

The species is composed of many shrubs.

The shrubs have many branches, many leaves, several inflorescences, many flowers, and many fruit (note that the plural of fruit is also fruit, if they are all of one type).

The inflorescences have one peduncle and several bracts.

The leaves have one petiole, one leaf blade, one adaxial surface, one abaxial surface, one base, one margin, one apex, and several veins (not nerves).

The flowers have one calyx, one corolla, several sepals, several petals, several stamens, one ovary, and one style.

The fruit have several seeds.

 

13. Terminology

The botanical terminology will be kept as concise and accurate as possible. Lawrence‘s Taxonomy of Vascular Plants (1951), Stearn‘s Botanical Latin (1992, ed. 4, revised), and the Plant Identification Terminology by Harris & Harris (1994) are useful references.

 

14. Distribution

Pan-Himalayas is subdivided into the following 17 subdivisions (eastwards): Wakhan, N Parkistan, Jammu &Kashmir, U Ganges and Indus, W Nepal, C Nepal, E Nepal, U Yarlung Zangbo, Sikkim and Darjeeling, M Yarlung Zangbo, L Yarlung Zangbo, Bhutan, Yarlung Zangbo-Brahmaputra, Tangut, N Hengduan, S Hengduan, N Myanmar.  Distribution of each taxon will be given at the county, district or township unless taxon is highly restricted in distribution or a more detailed account is necessary. For widespread taxon with distribution in no less than ten subdivisions, the overall distribution can be described as widely distributed in the Pan Himalayas, and mention only those regions where the taxon is absent. Subdivisions, counties, districts or townships are listed alphabetically. Detailed information of counties or districts or townships of each subdivision of Pan-Himalayas can be found in Appendix 1, and Map 1. 

 

15. Elevation

Elevations are usually given as a range, but if a single elevation is given it should be preceded by "ca."

 

16. Flowering and Fruiting Time

Flowering and/or fruiting time will be given by months using the first three letters of the month (e.g., "Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Oct–Nov" and "Fl. and fr. Aug–Oct"). If only a general flowering and/or fruiting period is known, the season can be given (e.g., "Fl. late spring–summer").

 

17. Chromosome Number

When they have been reported (i.e., published), chromosome numbers should be included at the end of the entry for taxa at the specific and infraspecific levels. All chromosome numbers will be cited as the somatic number (e.g., "2n = 14" and "2n = 36"). Unpublished chromosome numbers will not be included.

 

18. Discussion

Necessary discussion can be added at the end of each family, generic, specific, or infraspecific entry, but should be concise. Discussion will normally concern problems of nomenclature, taxonomy, distribution, or biology that highlight further research needs. If a taxon is considered to be threatened or endangered, special attention should be drawn to this. Unlike descriptions, discussions must be in proper English sentences.

 

19. Uses

Uses should be included when known, but must be kept brief. Examples of descriptive terms for uses could include fiber, ornamental, medicinal, oil, starch, or timber.

 

20. Voucher Specimens

Ideally all specimens seen should be recorded in the online Flora, but a minimum of one voucher specimen must be recorded for each distribution localities (counties for China, while districts for the other countries and towns or village for Yarlung Zangbo-Brahmaputra) in the printed Flora. Distributions localities are delineated in section 14. For widespread taxon with distribution in no less than ten subdivisions, specimen citation can be omitted. 

 

21. Distribution Maps

Distribution maps are provided in the online Flora, but not in the printed Flora.

 

22. Illustrations

22.1 No less than one-third of the species of each genus should be illustrated. These will show habit and relevant details of vegetative and floral parts so as to aid in the identification. The illustrations can be drawn from herbarium specimens selected by the authors, or taken from publications with permission.

 

22.2 Illustrations can be a single species plate, but preferable to take the form of a composite plate depicting more than one taxon. Where possible, authors should consider selecting one species for full illustration, and representing others, if not most of the remaining taxa, only by those parts which differ significantly from the full illustration, or which offer the greatest diagnostic value. Figures showing diagnostic features such as leaf or corolla shapes may also be included as text figures.

 

22.3 Authors should prepare the illustrations from resources at his or her institutions before seeking help from the editorial office in Beijing.

 

23. Related Literature

The followings are major floristic works that must be consulted in preparing treatments for the Flora of Pan-Himalayas.

Beijing: Science Press. 1959-2004. Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae

Kew: Royal Botanical Gardens and Saint Louis: Missouri Botanic Garden Press. 1994-2013. Flora of China

Sichuan Minorities Press. 1981-2005. Flora Sichuanica

Beijing: Science Press.  1964-1981. Flora Tsinlingensis

Beijing: Science Press. 1977-2005. Flora Yunnanica

Beijing: Science Press. 1983-1987. Flora Xizangica

Wang W.T. (ed.) 1993. Vascular Plants of the Hengduan Mountains

Sharma B.D., Balakris N.P., Rao R.R. and Hajra P.K. (eds.). Since 1993. Flora of India

Karl Heinz Rechinger  (ed.).  Since 1963.  Flora Iranica

Grierson A. J. C. and D. G. Long. 1983. Flora of Bhutan

Hara H. et al. 1978-1982. An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal

Hooker J. D. 1872-1897. The Flora of British India

Khan M. M. 1972 . Flora of Bangladesh

Nasir E. and S. J. Ali. 1971. Flora of Pakistan

 

 

24. Miscellaneous Abbreviations and Symbols

The following list gives the abbreviations and symbols that are to be used in the manuscripts.

 

Abbreviations and Symbols

Normal words

± 

more or less

?? 

missing data to be added before publication

μm 

micrometer(s)

X

 times

Central

ca. 

circa, about, approximately

cm

centimeter(s)

cv. 

cultivar

d.b.h. 

diameter at breast height

diam. 

diameter

E

East

EC 

East Central

ed. 

edition

e.g.

 for example

et al. 

and others

fig. 

figure

fl. 

flowering

fr. 

fruiting

i.e. 

that is

km 

kilometer(s)

L

Lower

M

Middle

meter(s)

mm

millimeter(s)

North

NC 

North Central

NE 

Northeast

nom. cons.

nomen conservandum

nom. nov. 

nomen novum

nom. nud. 

nomen nudum

n.s. 

new series

NW 

Northwest

p. 

page

pl.

plate

pp. 

pages

p.p. 

pro parte

South

SC 

South Central

SE

Southeast

sect. 

section

ser. 

series

s.l. 

sensu lato

s.s. 

sensu stricto

sp., spp. 

species

subfam.

subfamily

subgen. 

subgenus

subsp., subspp. 

subspecies

SW 

Southwest

t. 

table

U

Upper

var. 

variety

vol. 

volume

West

WC

 West Central

 

 

Acknowledgements

The editors gratefully acknowledge the Editorial Boards of Flora of China and Flora of Nepal for the use of their guidelines.

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2011/5/17 15:53:29
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